1. Esterified carotenoids are synthesized in petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and accumulate in differentiated chromoplasts.Iijima, L. Kishimoto, A., Ohmiya, A., Yagi, M., Okamoto, E., Miyahara, T., Tsujimoto, T., Ozeki, Y., Uchiyama, N., Hakamatsuka, T., Kouno, T., Cano, E.A., Shimizu, M., Nishihara, M. Scientific Reports 10: 15256 (link)

  2. Morphological and cytological observations of corolla green spots reveal the presence of functional chloroplasts in Japanese gentian. Takahashi, S., Ozawa, S., Sonoike, K., Sasaki, K., Nishihara, M. PLoS ONE 15: e0237173 (link)

  3. Molecular characterization of an anthocyanin-related glutathione S-transferase gene in Japanese gentian with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Tasaki, K., Yoshida, M., Nakajima, M., Higuchi, A., Watanabe, A., Nishihara, M. BMC Plant Biology 20:370 (link)

  4. Soy and Arabidopsis receptor-like kinases respond to polysaccharide signals from Spodoptera species and mediate herbivore resistance. Uemura T., Hachisu M., Desaki Y., Ito A., Hoshino R., SanoY., Nozawa A., Mujiono K., Galis I., Yoshida A., Nemoto K., Miura S., Nishiyama M., Nishiyama C., Horito S., Sawasaki T., Arimura G. Communications Biology 3:224 (link)

  5. Expression of LhFT1, the Flowering Inducer of Asiatic Hybrid Lily, in the Bulb Scales. Kurokawa, K., Kobayashi, J., Nemoto, K., Nozawa, A., Sawasaki, T., Nakatsuka, T., Yamagishi, M. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 570915 (link)

  6. 「発見!リンドウは花弁の緑色斑点で光合成する」 高橋重一、西原昌宏 学会誌 光合成研究 Vol30 (No3) 157-165.(link)


    1. Effects of knocking out three anthocyanin modification genes on the blue pigmentation of gentian flowers. Tasaki, K., Higuchi, A., Watanabe, A., Sasaki, N., Nishihara, M. Scientific Reports 9: 15831 (link)

    2. The Ring-type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase JUL1 Targets the VQ-motif Protein JAV1 to Coordinate Jasmonate Signaling. Mohamed R. M. Ali, Takuya Uemura, Abdelaziz Ramadan, Kyoko Adachi, Keiichirou Nemoto, Akira Nozawa, Ryosuke Hoshino, Hiroshi Abe, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Gen-ichiro Arimura. Plant Physiology 179: 1273-1284 (link)

    3. Tyrosine kinase-dependent defense responses against herbivory in Arabidopsis. Miyamoto, T., Uemura, T., Nemoto, K., Daito, M., Nozawa, A., Sawasaki, T., Arimura, G. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 776 (Link)

    4. Inhibition of post-transcriptional gene silencing of chalcone synthase genes in Petunia picotee petals by fluacrypyrim. Ban, Y., Morita, Y., Ogawa, M., Higashi, K., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Nakayama, M. Journal of Experimental Botany 70: 1513–1523 (Link)

    5. The host stomatal density determines resistance to Septoria gentianae in Japanese gentian. Tateda, C., Obara, K., Abe, Y., Sekine, R., Nekozuka, S., Hikage, T., Nishihara, M., Sekine, K., Fujisaki, K. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32: 428-436 (Link)

    6. Overexpression of geraniol synthase induces heat stress susceptibility in Nicotiana tabacum. Hamachi, A., Nisihara, M., Saito, S., Rim, H., Takahashi, H., Islam, M., Uemura, T., Ohnishi, T., Ozawa, R., Maffei, M.E., Arimura, G. Planta 249: 235-249 (Link)

    7. Sugar composition in asparagus spears and its relationship to soil chemical properties. Takahashi, H., Yoshida, C., and Takeda, T. Journal of Applied Glycoscience 66: 47-5 (Link)


    1. Application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for modification of flower color in Torenia fournieri. Nishihara, M., Higuchi, A., Watanabe, A., Tasaki, K. BMC Plant Biology 18:331(Link)

    2. Biological effects of ion beam irradiation on perennial gentian and apple. Sasaki, N., Watanabe, A, Asakawa, T., Sasaki, M., Hoshi, N., Naito, Z., Furusawa, Y., Shimokawa, T., Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology 35: 249-257 (Link)

    3. Carnation I locus has two chalcone isomerase genes involved in orange flower. Miyahara, T., Sugishita, N., Ishida-Dei, M., Okamoto, E, Kouno, T., Cano, E.A., Sasaki, N., Watanabe, A., Tasaki, K., Nishihara, M., Ozeki, Y. Breeding Science 68: 481-487 (Link)

    4. Gtgen3A, a novel plant GH3 β-glucosidase, modulates gentio-oligosaccharide metabolism in Gentiana. Takahashi, H., Kikuchi-Fujisaki, S., Yoshida, C., Yamada, H., Yamashita, T., Konno, N., Takeda, T. Biochemical Journal. 475: 1309-1322. (Link)

    5. 植物のたくらみ ー香りと色の植物学」有村源一郎・西原昌宏「ベレ出版 (Link)

    6. Development of basic technologies for improvement of breeding and cultivation of Japanese gentian. Nishihara, M., Tasaki, K., Sasaki, N., Takahashi, H. Breeding Science 68: 14–24 (Link)

    7. Repressed expression of a gene for a basic helix-loop-helix protein causes a white flower phenotype in carnation. Totsuka, A., Okamoto, E., Miyahara, T., Kouno, T., Cano, E.A., Sasaki, N., Watanebe, A., Tasaki, K. Nishihara, M., Ozeki, Y. Breeding Science 68: 139–143 (Link)

    8. Identification of new abscisic acid receptor agonists using a wheat cell-free based drug screening system. Nemoto, K., Kagawa, M,, Nozawa, A., Hasegawa, Y., Hayashi, M., Imai, K., Tomii, K., Sawasaki, T. Scientific Reports 8:4268 [Link]


  1. Development of molecular markers for breeding of double flowers in Japanese gentian. Tasaki, K., Higuchi, A., Fujita, K., Watanabe, A., Sasaki, N., Fujiwara, K., Abe, H., Naito, Z., Takahashi, R., Hikage, T. and Nishihara, M. Molecular Breeding 37:33 [link]

  2. The use of metabolome analysis to identify the cause of an unexplained disease of Japanese gentians (Gentiana triflora). Takahashi, H., Abe, H., Fujita, K., Sekine, K. Metabolomics 13:51 [link]

  3. The 64-bp sequence containing GAAGA motif is essential for CaMV-35S promoter methylation in gentian. Shimada, A., Okumura, A., Iwata, Y., Koizumia, N., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K. BBA - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1860: 861-869 [link]

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the GARU E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes gibberellin signalling by preventing GID1 degradation. Nemoto, K., Ramadan, A., Arimura, G., Imai,K., Tomii, K., Shinozaki, K., Sawasaki, T. Nature Communications 8:1004 [link]


    1. Development of a Broad bean wilt virus 2-based expression vector for gentian. Tasaki,K., Atsumia,G, Nishihara, M. and Sekine, K. Scientia Horticulturae 201:279–286 [link]

    2. Functional characterization of duplicated B-class MADS-box genes in Japanese gentian. Nakatsuka, T., Saito, M. and Nishihara, M. Plant Cell Reports 35: 895-904 [link]

    3. CaMV-35S promoter sequence-specific DNA methylation in lettuce. Okumura, A., Shimada, A., Yamasaki, S., Horino, T., Iwata, Y., Koizumi, N., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K. Plant Cell Reports 35: 43-51 [link]

    4. Metabolite profiling reveals the involvement of aberrant metabolic changes in Gentiana triflora seed showing poor germination. Takahashi, H., Fujita, K., Yoshida, C., Nishihara, M. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 91:148–155 [link]

Before 2015


  1. Molecular Breeding of Japanese Gentians— Applications of Genetic Transformation, Metabolome Analyses, and Genetic Markers. Nishihara, M. Mishiba, K., Imamura, T., Takahashi, H., Nakatsuka, T. In The Gentianaceae - Volume 2: Biotechnology and Applications. (2015) Springer.[link]

  2. Isolation and characterization of the C-class MADS-box gene involved in the formation of double flowers in Japanese gentian. Nakatsuka, T, Saito, M., Yamada, Y., Fujita, K., Yamagishi, N., Yoshikawa, N., Nishihara, M. BMC Plant Biology 15:182 [Open Access]

  3. Characterization of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase — the polyamine-synthetic enzymes that induce early flowering in Gentiana triflora. Imamura, T., Fujita, K., Tasaki, K. Higuchi, A. and Takahashi, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 463, 781-786. (link)

  4. Gentiobiose feeding in gentian in vitro overwintering buds or plantlets. Takahashi, H., Nishihara, M. Bio-protocol Bio-protocol. 5(12), e1499. [link]

  5. Identification of the glucosyltransferase that mediates direct flavone C-glucosylation in Gentiana triflora. Sasaki, N., Nishizaki, Y., Yamada, E., Tatsuzawa, F., Nakatsuka, T. Takahashi, H., Nishihara, M. FEBS Letters 589: 182-187 [link]

  6. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration. Sasaki, N., Nakayama, T. Plant and Cell Physiology 56:28-40 [link]


  1. Molecular characterization of mutations in white-flowered torenia plants. Nishihara, M., Yamada, E., Saito, M., Fujita, K., Takahashi, H., Nakatsuka, T. BMC Plant Biology 14: 86. [Open Access]

  2. Silencing of DS2 aminoacylase-like genes confirms salicylic acid-dependent resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana. Nakano, M., Nishihara, M., Yoshioka, H., Ohnishi, K., Hikichi, Y., Kiba, A. Plant Signaling & Behavior 9: e28004 (link)

  3. 植物の香りと色の代謝工学が拓く新時代. 有村源一郎・西原昌宏・下田武志 バイオサイエンスとインダストリー Vol.72 No.3 197-202. (link)

  4. High concentrations of sucrose induce overwintering bud formation in gentian plantlets cultured in vitro. Imamura, T., Higuchi, A., Sekine, K.T., Yamashita, T., Takahashi, H. Plant Biotechnology 31: 97-104 [link]

  5. Mitsunami, T., Nishihara, M., Galis, I., Alamgir, KM., Hojo, Y., Fujita, K., Sasaki, N., Nemoto, K., Sawasaki, T., Arimura, G. (2014) Overexpression of the PAP1 transcription factor reveals a complex regulation of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum plants attacked by Spodoptera litura. PLoS ONE 9: e108849. [PLoS One LINK]

  6. The gentio-oligosaccharide gentiobiose functions in the modulation of bud dormancy in the herbaceous perennial Gentiana. Takahashi, H., Imamura, T., Konno, N., Takeda, T., Fujita, K., Konishi, T., Nishihara, M., Uchimiya, H. Plant Cell 26:3949-3963 [link]

  7. Gentiolactone, a secoiridoid dilactone from Gentiana triflora, inhibits TNF-α, iNOS and Cox-2 mRNA expression and block NK-κB promoter activity in murine macrophages. Yamada, H., Kikuchi, S., Inui, T., Takahashi, H., and Kimura, K.I. PLoS ONE. 9, e113834. [PLoS One LINK]

  8. Transcriptional regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis and their application to flower color modification in Japanese gentians. Nakatsuka, T., Sasaki, N., Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology 31: 389-399 [link]


  1. Efficient haploid and double haploid production from unfertilized ovule culture of gentians (Gentiana spp.). Doi, H., Hoshi, N., Yamada, E., Yokoi, S., Nishihara, M., Hikage, T. and Takahata, Y. Breeding Science 63: 400-406. [Open Access]

  2. Suppression of anthocyanin pigmentation by single MYB transcription factors from gentian. Nakatsuka, T., Yamada, E., Saito, M., Fujita, K. and Nishihara, M. Plant Cell Reports 32: 1925-1937. [Springer LINK]

  3. Suppression of DS1 phosphatidic acid phosphatase confirms resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana. Nakano, M., Nishihara, M., Yoshioka, H., Takahashi, H., Sawasaki, T., Ohnishi, K., Hikichi, Y. and Kiba, A. PLoS One 8: e75124. [PLoS One LINK]

  4. Metabolic engineering of the C16 homoterpene TMTT in Lotus japonicus through overexpression of (E,E)-geranyllinalool synthase attracts generalist and specialist predators in different manners. Brillada,C. Nishihara, M., Shimoda, T., Garms, S., Boland, W., Maffei, ME. and Arimura, G. New Phytologist 200: 1200-1211. [Wiley link]

  5. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering. Masahiro Nishihara, Takeshi Shimoda, Takashi Nakatsuka, Gen-ichiro Arimura. Plant Methods 9: 23. [Open Access]

  6. Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier. Nakatsuka, T., Yamada, E., Takahashi, H., Imamura, T., Suzuki, M., Ozeki, Y., Tsujimura, I., Saito, M., Sakamoto, Y., Sasaki, N. and Nishihara, M. Scientific Reports 3: 1970. [Open Access]

  7. Inheritance of brown leaf spot disease resistance in gentians. Nekoduka, S., Horaguchi, H., Akasaka, S., Chiba, K., Hikage, T., Kawamura, H., Nakatsuka, T. and Nishihara, M. Journal of General Plant Pathology 79: 165-167. [Springer Link]

  8. Gentian Kobu-sho-associated virus: a tentative, novel double-stranded RNA virus that is relevant to gentian Kobu-sho syndrome. Kobayashi, K., Atsumi, G., Iwadate, Y., Tomita, R., Chiba, K., Akasaka, S., Nishihara, M., Takahashi, H., Yamaoka, N., Nishiguchi, M. and Sekine, K. Journal of General Plant Pathology 79: 56-53 [Springer Link]

  9. Dehydrins are highly expressed in overwintering buds and enhance drought and freezing tolerance in Gentiana triflora. Imamura, T., Higuchi, A., and Takahashi, H. Plant Science 213: 55-66. [PubMed]

  10. Metabolite profiling reveals tissue- and temperature-specific metabolomic responses in thermoregulatory male florets of Dracunculus vulgaris(Araceae). Ito, K., Takahashi, H., Umekawa, Y., Imamura, T., Kawasaki, S., Ogata, T., Kakizaki, Y., and Seymour, R.S. Metabolomics 9: 919-930. [link]

  11. NAD+ Accumulation during Pollen Maturation in Arabidopsis Regulating Onset of Germination. Hashida, S.N., Takahashi, H., Takahara, K., Kawai-Yamada, M., Kitazaki, K., Shoji, K., Goto, F., Yoshihara, T., and Uchimiya, H. Molecular Plant 6: 216-25. [PubMed]


  1. Construction of the first genetic linkage map of Japanese gentian (Gentianaceae). Nakatsuka T, Yamada E, Saito M, Hikage T, Ushiku Y and Nishihara M. BMC Genomics13:672. 2012 [Open Access]

  2. Isolation and characterization of GtMYBP3 and GtMYBP4, orthologues of R2R3-MYB transcription factors that regulate early flavonoid biosynthesis, in gentian flowers. Nakatsuka T, Saito M, Yamada E, Fujita K, Kakizaki Y, Nishihara M. Journal of Experimental Botany 63:6505-6517. 2012. [PubMed]

  3. Acquired immunity of transgenic torenia plants overexpressing agmatine coumaroyltransferase to pathogens and herbivore pests. Muroi, A., Matsui, K., Shimoda, T., Kihara, H., Ozawa, R., Ishihara, A., Nishihara, M. and Arimura, G. Scientific Reports 2: 689.2012. [Open Access]

  4. Isolation and characterization of an asparagine-rich protein that regulates hypersensitive cell death-mediated resistance in Nicotiana plants. Komori, D., Nishihara, M., Takahashi, A., Gupta, M., Yoshioka, H., Mizumoto, H., Ohnishi, K. and Hikichi, Y. and Kiba, A. Plant Biotechnology 29: 293-300. 2012.

  5. Plant-plant-plant communications, mediated by (E)-β-ocimene emitted from transgenic tobacco plants, prime indirect defense responses of lima beans. Arimura, G., Muroi, A., Nishihara, M. Journal of Plant Interactions. 7:196-196.2012. [Abstract]

  6. The effect of genetically enriched (E)- β-ocimene and the role of floral scent in the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatile blends of torenia. Shimoda, T., Nishihara, M., Ozawa, R., Takabayashi, J., Arimura, G. New Phytologist 193: 1009-1021. 2012. [PubMed]

  7. Gentian lipid transfer protein homolog with antimicrobial properties confers resistance to Botrytis cinerea in transgenic tobacco. Kiba, A., Nakatsuka, T., Yamamura, S., Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology 29. 95-101. 2012. [Abstract]

  8. Development of DNA markers that discriminate between white- and blue-flowers in Japanese gentian plants.Nakatsuka, T., Saito, M., Sato-Ushiku, Y., Yamada, E., Nakasato, T., Hoshi, N., Fujiwara, K., Hikage, T. and Nishihara, M. Euphytica 184: 335-344. 2012. [Springer Link]


  1. A single-base substitution suppresses flower color mutation caused by a novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in gentian.

  2. Nishihara, M., Hikage, T., Yamada, E. and Nakatsuka, T. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 286:371-382. 2011 [PubMed]

  3. The composite effect of transgenic plant volatiles for acquired immunity to herbivory caused by inter-plant communications. Muroi, A., Ramadan, A., Nishihara, M., Yamamoto, M., Ozawa R., Takabayashi, J. and Arimura, G. PLoS One 6(10): e24594. 2011. [PLoS One LINK]

  4. Development of simple sequence repeat markers for identification of Japanese gentian cultivars. Sato-Ushiku, Y., Shimada, N., Saito, M., Yamada, E., Hikage, T., Nakatsuka, T. and Nishihara, M. Journal of Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 80: 475-485. 2011. [Abstract]

  5. Gynogenesis in gentians (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra) : production of haploids and doubled haploid. Doi, H., Yokoi , S., Hikage, T., Nishihara , M., Tsutsumi, K. and Takahata, Y. Plant Cell Reports (in press)2011. [PubMed]

  6. The gentian orthologues of FT/TFL1 gene family control floral initiation in Gentiana. Imamura, T., Nakatsuka, T., Higuchi, A., Nishihara, M. and Takahashi, H. Plant and Cell Physiology 52: 1031-1041. 2011.[PubMed]

  7. Production of picotee-type flowers in Japanese gentian by CRES-T. Nakatsuka, T., Saito, M., Yamada, E. and Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology28: 173-180. 2011. [J-STAGE]

  8. A flavonol synthase gene GtFLS defines anther-specific flavonol accumulation in gentian. Kimura, S., Nakatsuka, T., Yamada, E., Saito , M. and Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology 28: 211-221. 2011. [J-STAGE]

  9. De novo DNA methylation of the 35S enhancer revealed by high-resolution methylation analysis of an entire T-DNA segment in transgenic gentian. Yamasaki, S., Oda, M., Koizumi, N., Mitsukuri, K., Johkan, M., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M. and Mishiba, K. Plant Biotechnology 28: .223-230. 2011. [J-STAGE]

  10. Epigenetic modifications of the 35S promoter in cultured gentian cells. Yamasaki, S. Oda, M., Daimon, H., Mitsukuri, K., Johkan, M., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M. and Mishiba, K. Plant Science180: 612-919. 2011.[PubMed]

  11. The new FioreDB database provides comprehensive information on plant transcription factors and phenotypes induced by CRES-T in ornamental and model plants. Mitsuda, N., Takiguchi, Y., Shikata, M., Sage-Ono, K., Ono, M., Sasaki, K., Yamaguchi, H., Narumi, T., Tanaka, T., Sugiyama, M., Yamamura, T., Terakawa, T., Gion, K., Suzuri, R., Tanaka, Y., Nakatsuka, T., Kimura, S., Nishihara, M., Sakai, T., Endo-Onodera, R., Saitoh, K., Isuzugawa, K., Oshima, Y., Koyama, T., Ikeda, M., Narukawa, M., Matsui, K., Nakata, M., Ohtsubo, N. and Ohme-Takagi, M. Plant Biotechnology 28: 123-130. 2011. [J-STAGE]

  12. Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants. Nishihara, M. and Nakatsuka, T. Biotechnology Letters 33:433-441. 2011. [PubMed]


  1. UDP-glucose:3-deoxyanthocyanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Sinningia cardinalis. Nakatsuka, T.and Nishihara, M. Planta 232:383-392. 2010. [PubMed]. Strict de novo methylation of the 35S enhancer sequence in gentian. Mishiba, K., Yamasaki, S., Nakatsuka, T., Abe, Y.,Daimon, H., Oda, M. and Nishihara, M. PLoS One 5(3): e9670. 2010. [PubMed]

  2. Two R2R3-MYB genes, homologues of petunia AN2, regulate anthocyanin biosyntheses in flower tepals, tepal spots and leaves of asiatic hybrid lily. Yamagishi, M., Shimoyamada, Y., Nakatsuka, T., Masuda, K. Plant and Cell Physiology: 51: 463-474. 2010. [PubMed]

  3. Genetic engineering of novel flower colour by suppression of anthocyanin modification genes in gentian. Nakatsuka, T., Mishiba, K., Kubota, A. Abe, Y., Yamamura, Y., Nakamura, N., Tanaka, Y. and Nishihara, M. Journal of Plant Physiol 167: 231-237. 2010. [PubMed]

  4. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: Recent advances via transgenic approaches. Nishihara, M. and Nakatsuka, T. Methods in Molecular Biology 589: Protocols for in vitro propagation of ornamental plants. S. Mohan Jain and Sergio J. Ochatt (eds). The Humana Press Inc. pp. 325-347. 2010. [PubMed]


  1. Genetic relationships in the genus Gentiana based on chloroplast DNA sequence data and nuclear DNA content. Mishiba, K., Yamane, K., Nakatsuka, T., Nakano, Y., Yamamura, S., Abe, J., Kawamura, K., Takahata, Y. and Nishihara, M. Breeding Science 59: 119-127. 2009. [J-STAGE]

  2. Over-expression of Arabidopsis FT gene reduces juvenile phase and induces early fowering in ornamental gentian plants. Nakatsuka, T., Abe, Y., Kakizaki, Y., Kubota, A., Shimada, N. and Nishihara, M. Euphytica 168: 113-119. 2009. [SpringerLink]

  3. Metabolite profiling by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry reveals aberrant putrescine accumulation associated with idiopathic symptoms of gentian plants. Takahashi, H., Munemura, I., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M. and Uchimiya, H. 2009. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 84: 312-318. 2009. [LINK]

  4. Development of codominant DNA marker distinguishing pink from blue flowers in Gentiana scabra.Kakizaki, Y., Nakatsuka, T., Kawamura, H., Abe, J., Abe, Y., Yamamura S. and Nishihara, M. Breeding Research 11: 9-14. 2009. (in Japanese with English abstract) [J-STAGE]

  5. Identification of gentian cultivars using SCAR markers based on intron-length polymorphisms of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Shimada, N., Nakatsuka, T., Nakano, Y., Kakizaki, Y., Abe, Y., Hikage, T. and Nishihara, M. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 292-296. 2009. [ScienceDirect]


  1. Identification and characterization of R2R3-MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. Nakatsuka, T., Haruta, K.S., Pitaksutheepong, C., Abe, Y., Kakizaki, Y., Yamamoto, K., Shimada, N., Yamamura, S. and Nishihara, M. Plant and Cell Physiology 49: 1818-1829. 2008. [PubMed]

  2. Cloning and characterization of the UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene from blue-flowered gentian. Nakatsuka, T., Sato, K., Takahashi, H., Yamamura, S., and Nishihara, M. Journal of Experimental Botany 59: 1241-1252. 2008. [PubMed]

  3. RIP and RALyase cleave the sarcin/ricin domain, a critical domain for ribosome function, during senescence of wheat coleoptiles. Sawasaki, T., Nishihara, M. and Endo, Y. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 370: 561-565. 2008. [SpringerLink] Flower color modification of gentian plants by RNAi-mediated gene silencing.

  4. Nakatsuka, T., Mishiba, K., Abe, Y., Kubota, A., Kakizaki, Y., Yamamura, S. and Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology 25: 61-68. 2008. [J-STAGE] FioreDB: a database of phenotypic information induced by the chimeric repressor silencing technology (CRES-T) in Arabidopsis and floricultural plants. Mitsuda, N., Umemura, Y. Ikeda, M., Shikata, M., Koyama, T., Matsui,K., Narumi, T., Aida, R., Sasaki, K., Hiyama, T., Higuchi, T., Ono, M., Isuzugawa, K., Saitoh, K., Endo,R., Ikeda, K., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Yamamura, S., Yamamura, T., Terakawa, T., Ohtsubo, N., and Ohme-Takagi, M. Plant Biotechnology 25: 37-44. 2008. [J-STAGE]

  5. Gentians: From gene cloning to molecular breeding. Nishihara, M., Nakatsuka, T., Mizutani-Fukuchi, M., Tanaka, Y., Yamamura, S. Floricultural and Ornamental Biotechnology V, published by Global Science Books, UK. pp. 57-67. 2008.


  1. Induction of differential flower pigmentation patterns by RNAi using promoters with distinct tissue-specific activity. Nakatsuka, T., Pitaksutheepong, C., Yamamura, S. and Nishihara, M. Plant Biotechnology Reports 1: 251-257. 2007. [SpringerLink]

  2. Pathogenesis-related protein 1 homologue is an antifungal protein in Wasabia japonica leaves and confers resistance to Botrytis cinerea in transgenic tobacco. Kiba, A., Nishihara, M., Nakatsuka , T. and Yamamura, S. Plant Biotechnology 24: 247-253. 2007. [J-STAGE]

  3. Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Suzuki, S., Nishihara, M,, Nakatsuka, T., Misawa, N., Ogiwara, I. and Yamamura, S. Plant Cell Reports 26: 951-959. 2007. [PubMed]

  4. Production of red-flowered plants by genetic engineering of multiple flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Nakatsuka, T., Abe, Y., Kakizaki, Y., Yamamura, S. and Nishihara, M. Plant Cell Reports 26: 1951-1959. 2007. [PubMed]


  1. Two different transposable elements inserted in flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase gene contribute to pink flower coloration in Gentiana scabra. Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K., Hirano, H. and Yamamura, S. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 275: 231-241. 2006. [PubMed]

  2. Heterologous expression of two gentian cytochrome P450 genes can modulate the intensity of flower pigmentation in transgenic tobacco plants. Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K. and Yamamura, S. Molecular Breeding 17: 91-99. 2006. [SpringerLink]

  3. Dominant inheritance of white-flowered and herbicide-resistant traits in transgenic gentian plants. Nishihara, M., Nakatsuka, T., Hosokawa, K., Yokoi, T., Abe, Y., Mishiba, K. and Yamamura S. Plant Biotechnology 23: 25-32. 2006. [J-STAGE]

  4. Production of dwarf potted gentian using wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Mishiba, K., Nishihara, M., Abe, Y., Nakatsuka, T., Kawamura, H., Kodama, K., Takesawa, T., Abe, J. and Yamamura, S. Plant Biotechnology 23: 33-38. 2006.[J-STAGE]

  5. Transgenic Phalaenopsis plants with resistance to Erwinia carotovora produced by introducing wasabi defensin gene using Agrobacterium method. Sjahril, R., Chin, DP., Khan, RS., Yamamura, S., Nakamura, I., Amemiya, Y. and Mii, M. Plant Biotechnology 23: 191-194. 2006. [J-STAGE]

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding polyketide reductase in Lotus japonicus. Shimada, N., Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Yamamura, S., Ayabe, S. and Aoki, T. Plant Biotechnology 23: 509-513. 2006. [J-STAGE]

  7. Transgenic potatoes expressing wasabi defensin peptide confers partial resistanceto gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). Khan, RS., Nishihara, M., Yamamura, S., Nakamura, I. and Mii, M. Plant Biotechnology 23: 179-183. 2006. [J-STAGE]

  8. Bisexual sterility conferred by the differential expression of Barnase and Barstar: a simple and ef゛cient method of transgene containment. Kobayashi, K., Munemura, I., Hinata, K. and Yamamura, S. Plant Cell Reorts 25: 1347-1354. 2006. [PubMed]


    1. Temporal expression of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes regulates flower pigmentation in gentian plants. Nakatsuka, T., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K. and Yamamura, S. Plant Science 168: 1309-1318. 2005 [ScienceDirect].

    2. Two different mutations are involved in the formation of white-flowered gentian plants. Nakatsuka,T., Nishihara, M., Mishiba, K. and Yamamura, S. Plant Science 169: 949-958. 2005. [ScienceDirect]

    3. Consistent transcriptional silencing of 35S-driven transgenes in gentian. Mishiba, K., Nishihara, M., Nakatsuka, T., Abe, Y., Hirano, H., Yokoi, T., Kikuchi, A. and Yamamura, S. The Plant Journal 44: 541-556. 2005. [PubMed]

    4. Flavonoid components and flower color change in transgenic tobacco plants by suppression of chalcone isomerase gene. Nishihara, M., Nakatsuka, T. and Yamamura, S. FEBS Letters 579: 6074-6078. 2005. [PubMed]

    5. A peroxiredoxin Q homolog from gentians is involved in both resistance against fungal disease and oxidative stress. Kiba, H., Nishihara, M., Tsukatani, N., Nakatsuka, T., Kato, Y. and Yamamura, S. Plant and Cell Physiology 46: 1007-1015. 2005. [PubMed]

  1. Comparison of selection efficiency between the bar and hpt genes in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Muscari armeniacum. Suzuki, S., Nakano, M., Koike, Y., Ueda, K., Inoue, M., Nishihara, M. and Yamamura, S. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultura Science 74: 60-62. 2005. [PDF]


  1. Transgenic rice expressing wasabi defensin gene exhibit its enhanced resistance to blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Kanzaki, H., Nirasawa, S., Saito, H., Ito, M., Nishihara, M., Yamamura, S., Suzuki, K., Terauchi, R. and Nakamura I. In '' Rice Blast:Interaction with Rice and Control. " by eds. Shinji Kawasaki. Kluwer Academic. 2004.

    1. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their transcriptional regulation during flower development. Zhu C. F., Yamamura, S., Nishihara, M., Koiwa, H. and Sandmann G. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1625: 305-308. 2003. [PubMed]

    2. C-terminal domain of a hevein-like protein from Wasabia japonica has potent antimicrobial activity. Kiba, A., Saitoh, H., Nishihara, M., Omiya, K. and Yamamura, S. Plant and Cell Physiology 44: 296-303. 2003. [PubMed]

    3. Control of in vitro organogenesis by cyclin-dependent kinase activities in plants. Yamaguchi, M., Kato, H., Yoshida, S., Yamamura, S., Uchimiya, H. and Umeda, M. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 8019-8023. 2003. [PubMed]

  2. Over-expression of Arabidopsis CAP causes decreased cell expansion leading to organ size reduction in transgenic tobacco plants. Barrero, R.A., Umeda, M., Yamamura, S. and Uchimiya, H. Annals of Botany 91: 599-603. 2003. [PubMed]

  3. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea. Zhu, C.F., Yamamura, S., Koiwa, H., Nishihara, M. and Sandmann, G. Plant Molecular Biology 48:277-285. 2002. [PubMed]

  4. Arabidopsis CAP Regulates the Actin Cytoskeleton Necessary for Plant Cell Elongation and Division. Barrero, R.A., Umeda, M., Yamamura, S. and Uchimiya, H. The Plant Cell 14: 149-163. 2002. [PubMed]

  5. Production of antimicrobial defension in Nicotiana benthamiana with a potato virus vector. Saitoh, H., Kiba, A., Nishihara, M., Yamamura, S., Suzuki, K. and Terauchi, R. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 14: 111-115. 2001. [PubMed]